Republic of South Sudan: 190 years of national liberation struggle - PART 2 OF 2

Category: Writing aboard the Kenya Airways: A story on coming to Rwanda for the first time
Published on Wednesday, 17 August 2011 15:33
Written by Hon. Atem Garang, The New Sudan Vision (SPLM),
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(Juba, ROSS) - Today (July 9th), we have to promise the younger generations that we will put firm foundation and pave a clear way for them and the coming generations to live in a strong united, politically stable and socio-economically prosperous modern nation. In order to achieve those noble objectives, we should, faithfully and obligatorily, toil to realize the following:

  1. Security and Stability, are paramount for any socio-economic development therefore it must be the first urgent item in the agenda of the government of this new nation; all the law enforcing agents are to undergo professional training and adequately equipped. Disarmament of the armed civil population is on element of bringing stability to South Sudan, the local communities have to be sensitized about policy of the disarmament;

  2. Good Governance, the country must be ruled with principles and objectives that are based on the provisions of our Transitional Constitution; decentralization should be carried out to the best of its essence. Good governance and rule of law means detribalization of the governance, depoliticizing the civil service and social services and demilitarization of our civil population. UNDP in 1997 have the following characteristics of good governance in the exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority: a) participation, all men and women should have voice in decision-making b) rule of law, legal frameworks should be fair and enforced impartially c) transparency, processes, institutions are directly accessible to those concerned with them and enough information is provided to understand and monitor them d) responsiveness, institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders e) consensus orientation, good governance mediates differing interests to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the group f) equity, all men and women have opportunities to improve or to maintain their well being g) effectiveness and efficiency, processes and institutions produce results that meet needs while making the best use of resources h) accountability, decision-making in government, the private sector and civil society organizations are accountable to the public, as well as to institutional stakeholders i)strategic vision, leaders and the public have a broad and long term prospective on good governance and human development, along with a sense of what is needed for such development. There is also an understanding of historical, cultural and social complexities in which that prospective is grounded. If we implement those essential characteristics of good governance we will solidify our unity and pave smooth path towards creation of socially democratic environment; this will require existence of competent institutional checks and balances between the three organs of the state, the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. The dictatorial regimes in the former Sudan ruled the country by turning all the state organs into one conforming organ only the Executive which led and resulted in a failed state which we have divided into two countries. In the new nation of South Sudan we have to avoid through good governance and rule of law. I will talk on some of the above characteristics of good governance;

  3. De-arabization, of the cultures of people of South Sudan. We have to weed and uproot all the negative cultural aspects which we have adopted and assimilated into our cultures from the Arabized North Sudanese people such as cruelty, lack of compassion, racial attitudes, mystification of poverty, greediness, divisive policies, intolerance, non recognition of diversity, blaming others for own failures and problems (External Conspiracy theory), dishonoring accords, corruption and plundering of public properties, disrespect of women rights, i.e. FGM etc.

  4. Special Relationship with the North, we have to exert all possible methods to realize mutual and good relations between our people and the Northerners. This is vital for both sides in order to avert any future hostility between our peoples. We should establish strong ties, the sort of socio-economic relationships that were prevailing before the coming of Egyptian invaders in 1821. People were equal and recognized and respected their territorial boundaries; this should start again today the 9th July 2011. We have to be absolutely certain that the authorities of the present regime in North Sudan will never work with honestly one day to pacify our borders with them, but rather will try all distractive methods to destabilize the South through their cronies the sort of those traitors who collaborated with them throughout our history. In spite of this fact we should exert all peaceful approaches to establish good relationships. We need a stable and tranquil frontiers with our neighbours;

  5. Modernization and Diversification of the Economy, our oil proceeds have to be utilized in developing the existing primitive subsidiary agriculture sector into a commercialized and modernized sector. Minerals, light industries and trade all are rich major potential sources of a strong diverse economy;

  6. Equitable Development, our natural and human resources must be developed and utilized for the interest of all the people of this new nation, no any reason that licenses concentration of development and social services in particular areas or zones. There should be a baseline for all  counties of this country on which future allocation of developmental projects and services could be based;

  7. Planning and Prioritization, a sequenced roadmap of our urgent, short, medium and long term needs that responses and fulfills the aspirations of our people all over the country, e.g. food security,  trade and commerce, viable economy, efficient communications, effective social services etc and to explain to the people the time frame for achieving those priorities. We are part of the globalization, therefore our priorities must be in line with Millennium Development Goals; (MDGs) e.g. goal one: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, goal two: achieve universal primary education, goal three: promote gender equality and empower women, goal four: reduce child mortality, goal five: improve maternal health, goal six: combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, goal seven: ensure environmental sustainability, and goal eight: develop a global partnership for development.

  8. Instantaneous Austerity Measures, The Government of South Sudan during the last five years or so have been spending luxuriously, wastefully and unwisely, this should be brought to held and immediate austerity measures must be adopted and new financial strict management policy is formulated at all levels of the government in Republic of South Sudan (central government, state governments, local authorities, public corporations and commissions) all have to adhere to such austerity measures. I.e. Strong durable, cheap and compatible vehicles to our climate and terrain should be the types that are introduced, imported, and be purchased to all government institutions. There should be a competent authority that is tasked to stipulate and to regulate import polices so that we protect our environment, our economy and as well as the health of our people etc. The present wages, salaries, emoluments, fat privileges and ungoverned external travels of the government officials all should be re-arranged based on professional assessments of standard of living in whole country, also the government extravagence expenses;

  9. Supremacy of the People, public officials, politicians, technocrats and clergy of all status and at all government and society levels must behave and work as servants of the people not their masters as it had been the case during the last 190 years of oppression and exploitation;

  10. National Reconciliation, healing and counseling will bring peace and stability among our people; this should be entrusted to nationalist figures known for their integrity and honesty;

  11. Prompt Legislations, the Parliament of South Sudan, as fast as possible, responsible as expected and with resolute must legislate laws that will promulgate justice, equality, democracy, human rights, protection of our natural resources, environment and enhance good governance etc, all to cement our national unity and to propel building of a strong new nation;

  12. Transparency and Accountability, the unbridled corruption in South Sudan (corruption in all its various dimensions) must be controlled and combated through legal frame work that emphasizes on transparency, accountability and punitive measures. A dangerous tendency of harbouring corruption had emerged and developed in South Sudan during the last six years and many corrupt practices had not been investigated and alleged corrupt elements with in the government institutions therefore have institutionalized corruption;

  13. Military Doctrine, our organized forces must be promptly indoctrinated, sufficiently re-educated and professionally enlightened about their new roles in an independent sovereign new nation with culturally different national identity, objectives and goals. The villainous doctrine of the North Sudan army has to be uprooted and erased from the minds and spirit of our forces. The Arabized forces the former Sudan inherited this villainous doctrine from the Condominium Rule, the invading army in 1898 was socially divided along racial lines. The first category was the royal forces from the Great Britain formed from British nationalists, they were the superior commanding officers, the second category were Egyptian troops formed from Egyptian citizens they assistants to the British commanders and the link between the British forces and lower group. The third segement of the invading army formed from Arabized northern Sudanese militias who were informants and logistics support in the desert and navigation of the river Nile. Lastly the black army formed from former slaves who were collected from the cotton and sugarcane plantations in Egypt, as part of the global slavery ablution which was spearheaded by Great Britain, and recruited into the invading forces in 1898, they were mainly porters and first line combatants, they were people without any identities, and just they were identify as former slaves. They socially and gradually were assimilated and milted into the Arbized population of northern Sudan. This awful racial discrimination, divide and treatment continued as policy and part of the doctrine of the Sudan Defense Force as the Sudanese Armed Forces were known throughout the period of the Condominium Rule in Sudan (1898-955). In 1956 the Sudanese Army doctrine was redesigned but the racial dimension was retained in the recruitment policy and the administration of the army and other organized forces such as police, wildlife and prisons. Therefore the social stratification and racial hierarchy in the army of the independent Sudan was that the first segment in social status was the Arabized Sudanese; the second group was the Black African Muslims from north Sudan and socially the last category of the army was the southern Sudanese. The civilians were considered to be inferior and up today it is conceived disgracing and belittling in the Sudanese Army to christen army personnel as civilian. Hence, in our army such discriminatory notions should be discouraged and replaced with patriotic concepts.

  14. Foreign Policy and Good Neighbourhood, our friends, who stood with us during the national liberation wars, the role they had played and the support they had rendered to us during our struggle must be appreciated. In the vanguard of those friends are Ethiopians, Ugandans, Eritreans and Black Caucus of the USA among many others. We are to strengthen mutual good relations with them and establish strong ties with peace loving nations. Our foreign policy should be driven by a pragmatic diplomacy that is aimed to achieve goals and interests of our people without our national interest being manipulated or exploited using neocolonial methods such as trade treaties that are coated with misleading phrases. We should not permit our government to be lured into signing bilateral, regional or international conventions, agreements and treaties without proper specialized study and the parliament have to safeguard and ensure that no any  treaty or agreement that is adopted without ascertaining what our people get from such agreements and treaties. The only organizations that we can join with immediate action are African Union, United Nations and IGAD. The mushrooming teenagers who are branded as international expatriates, with their inexperience notions, opinions and advice whose their agencies impose them on various government institutions all should thoroughly be scrutinized if not discouraged and avoided. We can not build a nation that depends on dreams of inexperienced young foreigners.

We have smashed the chains of oppression; but our challenges are immense, let the gates of dehumanization be closed behind us but our future must be mapped correctly. We have embarked on a joyous journey towards brighter future but through thorny and hazardous terrains, let us face it. In order to realize a real independent free nation for our people, we must utilize all the appropriate methods and tools of building a contemporary modern state. This will enable us establish a united, peaceful, stable, democratic, prosperous and strong nation. However, we have emerged from Arabian Hell, but our independence does not mean that we are at the gates and the entrance of the Paradise after we had been screened by the angels; we have enemies who will not allow us to progress. We have to be a hard working nation;


We are duty obliged to remember how some beloved members of our nation were brutally taken away into slavery in Egypt and North Sudan.


Our patriotism dictates us to acknowledge how we were dominated and butchered when we were fragmented for 190 horrific years! Those stooges and puppets whom are manipulated by Khartoum murderers, must know that we will never again be yoked in any form by Khartoum,

Who among us, from older generation of the present generations, who can not recall what befell us during the period following 1955? Atrocities and massacres in Torit, Yei, Wau, Juba, Rumbek, Warajwok near Malakal, Bor, Akobo, Maridi, Gogrial, Bentiu, Yambio, Awiel etc, and you know the (Nile Turned Red). Who has forgotten the barbaric indiscriminate air bombardments that targeted all our towns, villages, displaced persons settlements, cattle camps, fishing sites, crop cultivated fields, drinking water sources and even our wildlife? We have witnessed and experienced the cruelty of the tyranny in its inhuman totality.


After the international abolition of slave trade, our enemies never spared life for those whom they captured in battle fields nor did they keep them as prisoners of war (POW) in a conflict that rampaged for five decades (1955-2005). Wars that took fifty years and over two million South Sudanese war killed or died due to war related causes and there was no single POW, what does it indicate? It illustrates that our oppressors were wagging genocidal wars aimed for annihilation. The equation was and still holds: either the South Sudanese is captured and enslaved or has to die if there are no markets to trade him off!


Today we bow in veneration for those who have paid dearly, those who sacrificed their lives or were wounded during the course of our long struggle for our freedom. We recognize the role played by women in the liberation wars from 1821 to 2005. All our generations are heroes; each generation had offered thousands of martyrs.


Today a NEW NATION is born in the heart of Africa for a biblical promised people; today a New Colourful Flag is raised, for people prophesied by the Holy Scriptures. This flag is hoisted atop our mountains, on the mighty Imatong, the majestic Ladu and the splendid Boma. Today a commanding voice, of a nation pre-told to all nations by the consecrated prophets, is heard along the valleys of our rivers, the rolling Bahr Jebel, the roaring Jur, the irrigating White Nile, the relaxed Akobo and the swift Sobat.


Today a blessed nation is named for mighty fearless warriors, the REPUBLIC OF SOUTH



Today we are victorious and free people. Let us rejoice, raise and keep our flag flying high along our rivers and atop our mountains. Long Live Republic of South Sudan and Long Live People of South Sudan.


We vow to build a united strong modern SOUTH SUDAN.


*The author is the SPLM's Chief Whip in South Sudan's National Parliament. He can be reached at

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